Prof Karl Wennberg om flyktingars väg in på arbetsmarknaden

Under de senaste åren har det uppmärksammats att invandrares arbetslivsanknytning i Sverige är svagare än i många jämförbara länder. Sverige har fram tills december 2015 varit ett land med relativt öppna dörrar för skyddsbehövande, men har varit dåligt på integration – specifikt arbetsmarknadsintegration.

Vid institutet för Analytisk Sociologi (IAS) i Norrköping bedrivs idag ett forskningsprojekt om flyktingars arbetslivsanknytning i svenska kommuner. Våra slutsatser pekar på att det ser olika ut i kommunerna, där såväl många stads- som landsbygdskommuner lyckas mycket bra med att hjälpa flyktingar in på arbetsmarknaden, medan andra lyckas mycket dåligt.

Vårt projekt fokuserar specifikt på de 184 kommuner som har en negativ demografisk utveckling. Dessa utgör över 30 procent av Sveriges befolkning och en lejonpart av Sveriges yta. Om fler av dem skulle lyckas bättre kan de många nyanlända utgöra en potentiellt stark motor att vända dessa kommuners stagnation.

Det är här på sin plats med ett kort historiskt perspektiv på invandring. Det finns många skäl till migration till eller från Sverige. De främsta skälen tenderar att vara ekonomiskt svårmod och förtryck i hemlandet, ofta faciliterat av koppling till familj och vänner som tidigare utvandrat. Detta illustreras väl i till exempel Vilhelm Mobergs Utvandrarna. Sverige på 1800-talet var ett av Europas fattigaste länder och med starkt religiöst, etniskt, och även politiskt förtryck. Idag är Sverige ett av Europas mest välmående länder och rankas bland de mest toleranta länder vad gäller till exempel myndigheters behandling av minoriteter. Sverige har gått från att vara ett utvandringsland till ett invandringsland.

Värt att poängtera är att den i särklass största gruppen invandrare till Sverige är svenskar, med andra ord de som är födda i och är medborgare i Sverige. Det rör sig om hemvändande expatriates, återvändande studenter, etc. Världen är betydligt mer global idag än på 1800-talet.

I nutiden så har också skälen för invandring skiftat kraftigt. Från flyktingströmmarna vid efterkrigstiden till arbetskraftsinvandringen på 1950-1970-talen består nu lejonparten av invandringen av familjeåterförening (kärnfamiljsmedlemmar till nyligen invandrare samt internationella äktenskap). Figuren nedan visar att även i närtiden 2000-2010 så skiftar arbetskraftsinvandringen och flyktinginvandringen (skyddsbehövande) över tid men ligger på liknande nivåer. År 2012 så drar flyktinginvandringen iväg på grund av Syrienkrisen och idag är majoriteten av alla invandrare flyktingar.

Invandring till Sverige 2000 2012                                               

                                                                                            

Hur ser det då ut för dessa gruppers chans att få jobb i Sverige? Arbetskraftsinvandrare och studieinvandrare har historiskt sett en starkare arbetskraftsanknytning än infödda svenskar. Det är viktigt att inte glömma bort dessa viktiga grupper i den nuvarande flyktingdebatten – de innebär en stark ekonomisk motor att fylla de flaskhalsar som finns på den svenska arbetsmarknaden.

Vi har dock valt att fokusera på de mest utsatta – flyktingarna. Här ser man tydligt att de som kommer med gymnasie- eller högskoleexamen har bättre chanser – 3 år efter uppehållstillstånd har var tredje hittat ett jobb. För dem utan gymnasieexamen ser det dock betydligt sämre ut, här har bara var femte hittat ett jobb. Gymnasie- och komvuxinsatser för flyktingar framstår här som en av de viktigaste uppgifterna för Sveriges kommuner.

Om vi fokuserar på Sveriges kommuner så ser vi att bland växande (främst urbana) kommuner så skiftar arbetskraftsanknytningen för nyanlända flyktingar mellan 25 och 72% (för infödda svenskar är medelvärdet 85%). För kommuner med en demografisk stagnation så skiftar arbetskraftsanknytningen för nyanlända flyktingar mellan 9 och 69%.

Poängen här är att det finns uppenbart stor varians mellan kommuner. Även flyktingar som hamnar i perifera regioner med svaga arbetsmarknader lyckas tämligen bra med att hitta jobb. Bland dessa kommuner hittar vi till exempel Hallsberg, Skara, Eksjö, Ulricehamn, Överkalix och Karlshamn. Här finns lärdomar att hämta. SCB har i en serie rapporter visat att anknytningen till arbetsmarknaden under den första tiden i Sverige är viktig för individers framtida chanser på arbetsmarknaden. Språkträning och praktik redan under asylprövning – som Torsås kommun framgångsrikt experimentet med – framstår här som lovvärda initiativ för att förhindra framtida arbetslöshet och segregation.

Skrivet av:  Karl Wennberg, professor i företagsekonomi vid Handelshögskolan i Stockholm och en av talarna på Misums och Axfoundations seminarium ”Från invandring till Vinnvandring” den 22 mars. För närvarande är Karl tjänstledig för arbete vid Linköpings universitet där han är medgrundare till Institutet för Analytisk Sociologi (IAS) – ett internationellt tvärvetenskaplig forskningscentrum som använder big data för att analysera frågor om segregation och regional utveckling.

(Den här texten är även publicerad på bloggen 250möjligheter.)

Sustainable Sportsperson? What A Challenge! Blog post #3 from Tina Sendlhofer.

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Last week, I went to buy a new pair of running shoes, since my old pair of shoes hit its fourth year. General guidelines for running shoes claim that soles are usually used up after running 150-200 mils, depending on different factors, such as the runner’s weight, the running style and the running terrain. Anyhow, I do not really know how many Scandinavian miles I was running during the last years, but for sure they were more than 200. Since the inner linings started to dissolve (I guess that every runner understands the difficulty to let go of an old pair well worn in pair of running shoes), I started to research various brands and their products. Despite the optimal fit for a shoe, I learned quite a lot about how some brands take responsibility for their used products and encourage customers to reduce the footprint of a shoe. Some brands even argue how important it is to avoid throwing old shoes into common household refuse (see Adidas, Nike, etc.).

Equipped with this knowledge, I made my way to Löplabbet, Swedens’ specialist for running shoes. It seemed that the staff knew quite a lot about the optimal fit of a running shoe, but they had literally no idea what to do about the old pairs of shoes in a “sustainable or responsible” matter. After a long discussion and my obvious reluctance to leave my old shoes behind, so that they can throw them away, we agreed that the most useful action would be to donate my old pair to charity.

Even though I am quite happy with my new pair of shoes, I was quite frustrated about the store’s attitude towards the possible actions for a prolonging the end of the product’s life. I experienced how difficult it can be to make a conscious choice as a consumer and that there are quite some information obstacles that have to be overcome. I decided to ask the management of the chain for a statement, and this is the answer that I received promptly:

Thanks for your e-mail. Of course we’re aware of the environment as well as you. Unfortunately there’re no good way of taking care of old shoes. No brand take care of them and if we collect old shoes we don’t know how to proceed. We’ve asked Ragnsells (largest garbage company) how to do, but they told only to put them in the container for ”normal” garbage. Therefore, our best advice is to give your shoes away to any collector of products for humanity care. Either to an human organization for shipment abroad or to a place where refugees can have them.
Person from the Management Team

I conclude from their statement that they are indeed aware of the environmental problem of their core product. Yet, they do not want to assume responsibility for the waste of their products. And it seems that neither does the garbage company? Maybe it is not profitable enough to take care of this issue? The take-back schemes which are advocated at some of the brands’ websites seem to grasp only a small part of their used shoes.

I am happy to give away my old pair of shoes to charity. But for sure, I am planning to investigate into depth and ask Ragnsells what main issues relate to the waste of running shoes.

Written by: Tina Sendlhofer, PhD student at Misum

#tinasyear #MakeAChange

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Blog post #2

Blog post #1

 

Happening at Misum in March

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We have two interesting events coming up.

On the 9:th of March professors Lucia Reisch, Maurie Cohen and Arnold Tukker will visit Stockholm School of Economics to talk about sustainable consumption. Multi-stakeholder cooperatives, footprints per capita and consumption with planetary boundaries.

The seminar is co-hosted by Mistra.

More about the event here (and also registration).

On the 22 of March we are organizing a big seminar on migration value creation in the aula of Stockholm School of Economics. Jan Eliasson, Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nation, will speak on link.

More speakers and info here.

Most welcome!

A change in mindsets. Blog post #2 from Tina Sendlhofer

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The Misum-panel 8/2-16: Martin Johnson, Radja Group, prof Rebecca Earley, University of the Arts, Eduardo Escobedo, RESP, Geneve, Dr Susanna Paisley-Day, Cambridge University and Annika Shelly, Hybrid Talks

Yesterday, Misum in collaboration with Mistra Future Fashion hosted a fantastic after-work Hybrid Talks event at SSE. Annika Shelly, who is the founder of Hybrid Talks aims at creating a platform for ”us, them, and the others”. These events should bridge the gaps in knowledge and information as well as raise attention to an issue from various perspectives. Looking at the guest list, I felt being in a room filled of ”us”, rather than “them and the others”. My impression of “us” is like-minded people who advocate sustainable solutions. It did not need much effort to fascinate the audience.

All speakers were pitching their ideas geared at a more sustainable fashion industry. The diversity of ideas showed, that it is not only the responsibility of a single entity or one specific actor to act more sustainable. It requires a common effort of all kinds of actors involved.

Professor Rebecca Earley from University of Arts has conducted research on sustainable clothing for more than 20 years. She pitched the idea to rethink the concept of fast and slow. Indeed, when we think about fast fashion, we always think about the production times and the frequency of fashion cycles. She encourages us with her research to think about fast and slow from a material perspective. Rebecca argues that materials which are composited to last for decades but are perhaps only used for one season should be replaced by materials that are decomposable and easily thrown back into the material life-cycle, recycling respectively. What really caught my attention was that she repeatedly mentioned the need and understanding of how to change mindsets. For instance, one of her examples was to achieve a shift from the “haulers” (also here) to “haulternatives” (see Noodlerella).

This change in mindset was a common thread for the following talks too. Eduardo Escobedo from RESP in Geneva, Martin Johnson from Rajda and Dr. Susanna Pasley-Day  from Cambridge University introduced ideas that require a change in mindsets from the NGOs, clothing factories, but also people who design and consume textiles products and so forth. Frankly, everyone.

Martin Johnson show-cased a factory in Kolkata, India which is specialized on the production of leather products. The factory owners teamed up with a local group of monks to get inspired by ideas how employees as well as the immediate environment should be treated. I have visited a couple of clothing factories in India before and I feel that this approach can be a good role model for enhancing working conditions and the treatment of the environment. The fact that “human” and “environmentally friendly” working practices have to be decided by a strategic board rather than these are common practice anyways make me doubt about the key roots of this situation. If this business philosophy is profitable and as easily implemented as in his presented case, then I wonder why this is not standard behavior? What are the reasons for other factories to avoid creating this environment? Is it the profit margins?

Then, Dr. Susanna Pasley-Day’s talk was truly fascinating. She narrated about her inherent motivation to give something back to nature. Her idea is that if humans borrow beauty from nature, that are illustrated on paintings, fabrics, and so forth, something should be given back to nature. Her chain of arguments was very logic. For instance, if one purchases a t-shirt that illustrates a figure of a movie, a certain percentage of the price goes to the trademark owners. The same principle could apply to nature. I am excited to follow the development of this idea.

I left the event with a mix of feelings of inspiration and intimidation. What is on the agenda? It is: a change of mindsets of everyone, make sustainability accessible to everyone, transparency about products and business practices, closing the gap of knowledge and application, and many more. I guess that it takes a lot of effort and time to achieve “true” sustainability in the fashion industry.  However, I truly believe that these ideas can contribute to a change in mindsets in the mainstream, the remaining question is how to bridge that gap. After all, it was again “us” talking to “us”.

Written by: Tina Sendlhofer, PhD student at Misum

#tinasyear

#MakeAChange

Blogpost #1

 

”I´m changing my personal life style.” Follow Tina Sendlhofer, PhD-student at Misum and her changes for a more sustainable living. Blog post #1.

12669270_10153380851783568_2004931072_oThe year of 2015 has been quite exciting for me. Many events, such as the fashion week in Stockholm last year (with focus on the water issue), but also the COP21 in Paris kicked in as an additional motivator to change my private life style. I guess the majority of us recognises themselves in the situations to “just wait a bit longer to change”, “next time I do better”, “it requires too much effort and time” and hence postpone actions that are nagging constantly in our minds. Despite these kind of events, I have some additional reasons that filled up the glass and made me realise that I should not wait any longer. As I love to write diaries, I find it natural to reflect what and who is driving me and the actions that I take. Some of these decisions have impacted my everyday life quite substantially and I thought that this could be interesting for “others” to read. But before I explain in greater detail what I have been changing so far and what I am planning to change, I would like to be honest about why I decided to write about this.

Since I have started my PhD at Stockholm School of Economics and Misum, I have been increasingly exposed to quite some criticism. Not only for my academic performance, but also for my lifestyle. As soon as I am pitching my PhD thesis subject and my motivations behind it, my environment reacts like this: “So what should I do to be a more sustainable person? What do you do in your private life to live more sustainable? Can one shop at all? Where can you buy things without having a bad conscious?” Usually, I respond like this: “Consume less. Inform yourself about the firms and how they source their material, what their social policies are and if they are successful in implementing it. Also, consider if you really need these things or if they are just trendy to have.” Wait… WHAT?? That sounds very time consuming coupled with lots of effort and achieves rather demotivation than motivation. It is so easy for me to confidently recommend people what to do, because during my previous work, I have followed auditors around the globe for checking up on the compliance for all kinds of certifications in all kinds of industries. Additionally, since I have started my PhD, I am reading everyday about smart solutions and ideas as well as theories that promise to turn (partially) the world into a better place. But what in fact can I do, what easy solutions are readily waiting for me out there, what substitutes can I opt for, and are these truly better? Apparently it has become trendy to think about environment and the consequences of our life style. Personally, I feel that the idea to brand oneself as a “feminist, conscious and sophisticated” person, but that is really easier said than done.

It seems that just as in academia, also in private life, there is no black or white solution as in right or wrong. It is a matter of all kinds of colours that should please one personally about living their life. So I just go with what feels right for me and aim to proof that with little dedication and some research, it is comes easy to every consumer to contribute tor a sustainable world.

Without trying to preach the traditional evangelism of sustainability, this should be rather a show case of an attempt towards positive change. Within the next year, I am planning to reflect on my previous experiences and resulting actions, my motivations and struggles, but also try to find support in literature or documentaries. The focus will be on sustainable fashion, because this is my core interest, but I will also include other small changes too. I am sure that along my journey, my peers once again will push me to reconsider certain decisions and be more critical about what I am doing. I hope there will be some inspiring discussions.

Written by: Tina Sendlhofer, PhD student at Misum

#tinasyear

#MakeAChange

 

Are Sustainable Development Goals Incompatible?

The UN adopted a new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in September 2015 to eradicate poverty, establish socio-economic inclusion and protect the environment and our natural resources. Figure 1 presents the 17 SDGs as specified by the United Nations.

SDG_icons

Critical voices such as the International Council of Science and International Social Science Council (2015), however, have expressed concerns about potential incompatibility of the SDGs, specifically the incompatibility of socio-economic development and environmental sustainability. They argue that by ignoring the interlinkages, complex dynamics and conflicting relations between the goals there is a risk ”that the framework as a whole might not be internally consistent – and as a result not be sustainable”.

With an interdisciplinary team of researchers from economics, mathematics, sociology and statistics, we quantify and model the alleged inconsistency of SDGs. The researchers are from Stockholm School of Economics and Uppsala University in Sweden, University of Leeds, UK and Virginiatech, USA. Using publically available data on development, economy, politics, social welfare and environment – we analyze which SDGs are conflicting, which are independent and which interact positively.

According to our analyses of the 16 SDG indicators suggested by the UN as measures of the SDGs, we find that the SDGs are not well conceptualized. While the ”End Poverty” goal seems to be a valid construct with good indicators, the ”Social Inclusion” is much weaker in its validity.  Indicators of ”Social Inclusion” like ”Education” are good measures but others like the ”GINI” coefficient (measuring inequality), ”Youth Unemployment” or ”Women Parliament” are weak indicators. ”Environment” seems to be particularly poorly measured by suggested UN indicators. Moreover, the overall model fits also confirm the impression of a poorly specified model for sustainable development.

We measure the extent of inconsistency of the SDGs and conclude that the SDGs will be difficult to attain, unless we have cognizance of how some of the SDGs move in conflicting direction. Exploring the nature of these inconsistencies using data-driven dynamical systems models, reveal that the focus on economic growth and consumption as a means for development underlies the inconsistency in sustainable development. On the other hand, our results also show that there are factors which can contribute to development (health programs, education investment) and ecological sustainability (alternative energy), without necessarily triggering the conflict between incompatible SDGs.

Written by: Ranjula Bali Swain, Visiting Professor at Misum, Stockholm School of Economics and Professor of Economics, Södertörn University. Email: Ranjula.Bali@hhs.se